Archive | August, 2012

Can a “Failure of Imagination” Kill You?

25 Aug

A strong imagination is a vital asset
Published on July 26, 2012 by Katrina S. Firlik, M.D. in A Spoonful of Sugar 

A strong imagination is a vital asset.

A brief article in Wired magazine last year explained that our classic failure to save enough for retirement is, at least in part, due to our failure to imagine our older selves. In other words, it’s hard for a thirty-year-old woman to truly imagine herself as a seventy-year-old woman.

Because the seventy-year-old is a complete “stranger,” the ability to see past the present and save for future needs is hampered. It’s hard to care about something or someone you cannot envision very well.

The article describes a study that concluded: simply being presented with an age-progression image of yourself—decades older—can motivate you to save. The image aids imagination. Your older self is no longer a stranger or a complete abstraction.

I believe a similar issue is at play when it comes to the public health crisis of medication non-adherence (failing to take important prescription medications, particularly for chronic conditions).

Your physician can explain to you, for example, that you need to take your blood pressure medication in order to prevent a heart attack or stroke years down the line. However, even if you understood that message, intellectually, and can verbalize the message back to yourself, there are psychological barriers to following through.

I focused on the adherence problem in my last two posts, particularly on the issue of short-term vs. long-term rewards, and our hard-wired “present-bias preferences.” The “failure of imagination” barrier is related, but distinct (and distinctively interesting).

Case in point: I am fairly fanatical about applying sunscreen. Why? For one, I’d like to prevent the premature aging that naturally accompanies the deceptive “healthy glow” of a tan. I believe it ages your skin more than age does.

More importantly, though, I can easily imagine what it would be like to suffer from malignant melanoma. In my career as a neurosurgeon, I’ve treated a small handful of patients with melanoma that metastasized to the brain. I remember one fairly young patient quite well. I can recall how she looked, what the tumor looked and felt like, how much it bled while we took it out, and what the conversation with her family was like when they decided on no further treatment when the cancer progressed despite aggressive intervention.

In other words, I have no failure of imagination when it comes to melanoma. It is not an abstraction for me.

Similarly, if I were diagnosed with high blood pressure, I would have no failure of imagination when it comes to imagining what it would be like to have a stroke and to live with the resulting disability. I have seen plenty of strokes. I would take my medication.

But not everyone can overcome a failure of imagination by treating patients. Plus, even physicians who have seen it all can still suffer from the “it will never happen to me” denial in their own lives—yet another psychological hurdle, but not for this post.

So here is the challenge: how can we get people past this failure of imagination? How can we enhance imagination skills? How can we help people to not only imagine their older selves to better save for retirement, but also to imagine themselves years down the line with the complications that can stem from medication non-adherence (or poor eating habits, a lack of exercise, or smoking) to inspire better health behaviors? If you have the answer, then you have a game changer. 





What Not to Do or Say When Interviewing

23 Aug

By Miriam Salpeter | U.S.News & World Report LP – Wed, Aug 1, 2012 1:31 PM EDT

Job seekers spend so much time figuring out what to say during the job hunt, it’s easy to forget how important it is to know what not to say. Unfortunately, in this competitive job-search environment, one poor response or casual reference can mean an employer will decide not to hire you.

The most important thing you can do as a job seeker is focus on the employer’s needs before your own and recognize that hiring managers will evaluate you at every opportunity. Companies put a lot of time and effort into trying to evaluate and hire candidates who are good fits. They look for every opportunity to qualify or disqualify you, and use every interaction to assess a good fit beyond specific skills needed.

Employers want to know: Is the person able to communicate efficiently and succinctly? Does he or she appear prepared and informed about the position, which might indicate the candidate’s general approach to preparing for important meetings? Is the candidate someone who would be pleasant to have in the office, or does he or she bring a negative attitude?

Since it’s tough to learn these specifics from a resume, your conversations and casual interactions will speak volumes. Be aware and prepared, and consider the following so you don’t botch your chances for the job inadvertently.

Don’t be desperate. If you say, “I really need this job; or any job,” the employer is likely to run the other way. Another no-no: “I’m really flexible, I can do anything.”

Why is it bad to be so available? Confidence, not desperation, is the skill most employers want in a new hire. Usually, they don’t go hand-in-hand; so one whiff of “I can be anything you want me to be” or “I need this job to pay my bills” may send the employer racing in the opposite direction.

Don’t complain. Employers are sensitive to subtle signs and clues when they talk to you. Don’t say anything that may make it appear you are excessively negative or whiny. If you had a bad night, are really tired, hate the heat, couldn’t find a parking place, or broke your heel on the way to the interview, keep it to yourself. Otherwise, you risk leaving the impression it will be unpleasant to work with you. No one likes spending time with someone who always sees the cup half empty, so smile, and don’t let on that anything is bothering you.

Another topic to avoid: Don’t mention how hard it is to find a job. For example, don’t say, “I’ve been having a hard time getting a job because of my age.” This may or may not be true, but the potential employer doesn’t care, and you’re wasting your time discussing your job hunt with someone who won’t hire you.

Don’t be rude. Mind your manners. If you’re at a lunch interview at a restaurant, and you are rude to the waiter, expect the interviewer to take notice. Say “please” and “thank you,” be considerate, and don’t do anything that leaves the impression that you missed important lessons about how to treat people. Similarly, employers monitor your interactions with assistants and receptionists. If you are unkind or snippy with anyone during your interactions, assume it will be held against you. For example, if you’ve been kept waiting a long time, don’t complain to the front desk person, “I have better things to do than wait here all day.” Instead, politely ask when someone will see you, and then make a decision if you want to work for someone who keeps you waiting at the interview.

Don’t be a blabbermouth. The minute you badmouth your previous boss or employer, you tell the new employer you lack common sense. Even if your previous boss or company has a bad reputation, it is not wise to add your two cents on the matter. Be discrete; who wants to hire a known gossip? The hiring manager will assume you would spread negative information about the new company, and will probably not want to take a risk by hiring you.

Don’t ramble on and on. When the interviewer asks, “Tell me about yourself,” and you start with, “I was born…,” you can pretty much assume you just lost your listener’s attention–and probably your chance to impress the employer. Do yourself a big favor by keeping everything you say focused on information you know the employer wants to hear.

Don’t make it “all about you.” It can be a real turn-off when you start asking about salary and benefits before you’ve sold yourself as the best candidate for the job. Asking how much vacation time you’ll have, mentioning your need to secure childcare, or asking about perks like a company car, computer, or cell phone will make the employer think you are more worried about your needs than those of the organization. This is not a selling point for you.

Don’t ask anything you could have easily found out already. If you’re applying for a job, the onus is on you to research the company. Don’t ask questions if the answers are on the organization’s website. It makes you look lazy and unprepared, two “qualities” most employers hope to avoid when hiring.

Don’t let it all hang out online. There are many stories about candidates who shared details about their personal lives or opinions about companies where they are interviewing online and lost the opportunity as a result. Assume anything you post online is accessible to employers and avoid commenting on the interviewer’s ugly tie, bad breath, or lack of preparedness. Do not say you will take the job until something better comes along. Do not post details about your illegal drug use, and do not let everyone know how often you come to work hung over. This information, when it is part of the public record about you, will come into play when the employer is choosing candidates, and it will hurt you.

Miriam Salpeter is a job search and social media consultant, career coach, author, speaker, resume writer, and owner of Keppie Careers. She is author of Social Networking for Career Success. Miriam teaches job seekers and entrepreneurs how to incorporate social media tools along with traditional strategies to empower their success.

What Do Interviewers Notice First About You?

22 Aug

How to guarantee that the first impression you give is a positive one

May 3, 2012

Whoever originally said “You only get one chance to make a first impression” was either coming from a job interview or a blind date. The two scenarios do have certain commonalities. Both can be nerve-wracking social circumstances in which you meet someone who could be important to you for some time. In both situations, carrying breath mints can only help, not hurt.

One advantage an interview has over a date, however, is that most hiring managers’ intentions are transparent; they want to find a qualified candidate to fill a particular job. That means you can do a little prep work to make sure the first impression is a positive one. To help you, here’s a list of seven things an employer will notice about you first during an interview:

1. Your arrival time

Being even the slightest bit late is an obvious no-no, but experts agree that arriving too early is also gauche, since you might make the interviewer feel rushed to greet you. What’s the sweet spot? Somewhere between five and 10 minutes before your appointed time. “We suggest that candidates not arrive any more than 10 minutes ahead of an interview, unless they’ve coached you to come in early to fill out paperwork,” says Brett Good, senior district president for the staffing services firm Robert Half International. Do a dry run ahead of time so that you’re sure of the route to take to the office, and so you’re familiar with the traffic flow for the time of day you’ll be driving.

2. Your Attire

Your interviewing outfit should depend on the company and the occupation you’re seeking. It’s not always appropriate to wear a basic business suit, but donning your dingy cut-out jeans probably won’t work, either. To determine how you should and shouldn’t dress, Gretchen Sunderland, a career and executive coach for 12 years, recommends conducting a little intel (i.e., a Google search) on the company’s corporate culture.

If you’re still having trouble, Sunderland suggests calling the office’s front desk. “Receptionists are normally very helpful with advising on dress,” she states. “And there’s a chance that [what you did] will get back to the hiring manager, and that’s not a bad thing. You’ll just appear as though you’re concerned about making a positive impression.” Plan on dressing just a little bit better than what you find out to be the office norm.

Do you have piercings, tattoos, a mohawk and/or dreadlocks? Then you should base your decision for how to sport them on the type of job you’re seeking, Good says. “If you’re interviewing to work in media or marketing, then showcasing that sort of flair might be acceptable,” he advises. “But for a position in the accounting department, you might want to appear a little more conservative.”

3. Your Body Language

Slumped shoulders, crossed arms, and fidgety fingers won’t do you any favors with a hiring manager. And keep in mind that nervous ticks—like tapping your foot or flipping your pencil—could signal impatience. “I train people to mirror the energy and body language of the person who is interviewing them,” Sunderland says.

Posture is also important. Find a balance between looking relaxed yet alert. Good says: “You want to have an aura of confidence, but you also don’t want to come across as too casual. It’s alright to look comfortable, but not so much that you drape your arm over the arm of a chair. Then you’ve started to look too laid back.”

4. Your Communication Style

Nearly every job description asks for candidates who know how to communicate effectively. Communication is ground zero for performing a job’s tasks well, and your interview is the first chance you’ll get to show an employer what type of communicator you are. Mumbling, garbling your words, or umming and erring simply won’t do.

Similar to her advice on body language, Sunderland recommends mirroring the interviewer’s communication style and adopting a similar approach. “If you’re a fast-talker but you’re talking to someone who has a mellower communication style, your pace could be too overwhelming,” she says. “Pay attention to how they communicate with you, their tone of voice, and their energy, and mirror it back to them.” Also, listen carefully to the questions asked, avoid interrupting, and maintain eye contact with those with whom you’re speaking.

5. Your Preparedness

“It really comes down to a candidate’s preparedness for a meeting,” Good says. “Interviewers can tell if you’ve done your homework on their company. One of the first questions they’ll probably ask is for you to tell them what you know about their organization. Failing to answer this basic, common question could set the whole tone.”

You should not only be ready with responses to the most common interview questions, but you should prep your own set of questions to ask concerning the job’s responsibilities, the corporate culture, and about what to expect next in the hiring process.

A few other signs that you’re prepared for the interview: the materials you bring. Carry hard copies of your resume, your work portfolio (if you have one), and a pen and pad for taking notes.

6. Your Enthusiasm

There’s nothing wrong with letting a potential employer know how much you’d like the job. In fact, a little enthusiasm is preferable because you don’t want to convey indifference. Says Sunderland: “I’ve found a lot of people will finish an interview and say, ‘Thank you so much for your time.’ What they really need to say is, ‘Thank you, and I’d really love to have this job.'”

7. Your Qualifications

You can’t just nail an interview with good fashion sense and social graces; you also have to prove your competency. Your resume and cover letter contained enough qualifications to secure an interview, but once you’re in the room, you have expound on your accomplishments and expertise. Treat each question’s response as an opportunity to prove you’re the right fit for the position. “Focus on the impact you’ve had in your career and in your prior work history,” Good says, “whether it was saving your company money, or creating an innovation.”

Fake It ’til You Make It!

21 Aug
How to go from introverted to extroverted in seconds!


Published on January 17, 2012 by Janine Driver in You Say More Than You Think 
Fake it ’til you make it. That’s what I tell the people I speak to across the country.

Body language movements and gestures boil down to their perceived value, which means the person across the room may make assumptions about you that aren’t necessarily true, just because of the way you’re standing or sitting. Think about it for a moment. Your arms are crossed across your chest as you’re reading this. A coworker walks by and starts to think you may not be very happy and doesn’t stop in to chat because he doesn’t want to catch you in a bad mood. But are you mad? No, not at all. In reality, your office is slightly colder than usual and you’re trying to stay a little warmer because you just can’t tear yourself away from this blog post to turn the heat on.

See how the perceived value of a movement can affect someone’s opinion of you? So how can we turn this perception around to our advantage? Most of us know if we are an extroverted or introverted person. Do you get your energy from being around people in social situations or do you recharge by having some alone time before or after work? Each type has its advantages and disadvantages, so don’t think one is better than the other. However, extroverts can have the upper hand in social settings when meeting new people.

A study done by the University of California suggests that extroverted people convey different movements and gestures than do introverted people (Neff, Wang, Abbott, and Walker 2010). The researchers had participants rate a computer-animated woman giving restaurant suggestions as extroverted or introverted. Their results indicate that outward hand gestures (as opposed to inward gestures in which the speaker keeps the hands close and moves the hands toward herself) and an increased rate in gestures indicate the speaker to be perceived as extroverted. But the speaker was developed through animation software. She’s not even a real person! This just shows that our brains perceive someone to be one way or another.

So let’s apply these findings to my fake it ’til you make it mantra. For those folks out there who are more introverted, use these tips to come off as more extroverted in social situations. Hopefully, you’ll feel more confident and comfortable in a big social setting where you want to stand out and not be dominated by the extroverts in the room. When you practice these techniques, no one will know the difference!

Introverts tend to stand more vertically than extroverts. When you’re introducing or talking about yourself, lean slightly forward with your upper body. It shows that you are interested in the people you are talking to and want to be social.

Introverts tend to keep their hands closer to the body while talking and move their hands towards themselves. Extroverts move their hands outward and away from the body while speaking. Use open-palm gestures and try to move your hands toward the person you’re speaking to in order to come off as an open and extroverted individual.

Finally, extroverts have a higher gesture rate and move their body more quickly than introverts. If you don’t talk with your hands a lot, increase your hand and arm movements to mimic the gesture rate of extroverts.

Practice these techniques while talking to your friends, family and coworkers. Eventually, you’ll be comfortable enough to use them in situations where you are meeting new people. Maybe you’re in a job interview and don’t want to come off as shy. Lean forward and move your hands toward the interviewer as you tell her about the last project you worked on. Or if you’re out with your friends on a Friday night, use these same techniques to stand out a little more than you did before.

So, don’t think that being introverted hinders you in social settings. Fake it ’til you make it in order to become the person everyone wants to talk to!

Janine Driver is the New York Times best-selling author of You Say More Than You Think and the CEO of the Body Language Institute. Learn more about Janine and the Body Language Institute at and

Non-verbal Communications and Job Interview

20 Aug
Employment interviewnon verbal communication (body language) are gestures, postures, facial nods and subsequent expressions we do more often than not unintentionally.

A lot of us believe in it, but not many people consider non verbal communication and expression as important. Non-verbal expression is important as can give away a lot of things about us.

Non verbal communication management:

It is essential to think on management of non verbal communication.
It is important to think about our gestures as to which signs are suitable and which are inappropriate. We can put into practice some suitable gestures.

Look at these illustration pictures. See what the suitable gestures and inappropriate gestures for job interview in the images below.

Non-verbal communication and job interview – example 1:
Do not point with your finger. It is a sign of domination and aggression.
Non verbal communication and job interview
Job interview and non verbal communication – example 2:
Do not lean back; this portrays laziness.
Job interview and non verbal communication
Job interview and body language- example 3
Do not fold your arms. Folded arms depict closed-mind. It is also a sign that you are angry and don’t want to talk.
Job interview and body language
Non verbal communication and job interview – example 4
Seeing a candidate sitting one leg over other is not very comfortable for many employees. It shows that candidate thinks he is superior and ‘Mr. Always Right’
Non verbal communication and job interview
Body language and job interview – example 5
Chin on hands shows that the candidate is not really interested in the conversation. This should be thus avoided.
Body language and job interview 

The Advantages Of Nonverbal Communication

20 Aug
Jul 18, 2010 | By Amy Kaminsky
The Advantages of Nonverbal Communication
Photo Credit handshake image by Peter Baxter from

Communicating a message to another person through a body movement or gesture is nonverbal communication, one of the most powerful and widely used forms of communication among humans. Types of nonverbal communication include hand gestures, facial expressions, and posture. Touching another person is a form of nonverbal communication. Even the way you dress communicates messages nonverbally. According to Help Guide, understanding nonverbal communication and learning to use it effectively will help you navigate many of life’s challenges.



Proper nonverbal communication can be as effective as giving all the right verbal answers in a job interview. However, poor nonverbal communication can hinder an interviewee’s success in a job interview. Reference for Business lists an interviewee’s arrival time to an interview as a form of nonverbal communication to an interviewer. If you arrive to an interview late, you are nonverbally telling the hirer that you are irresponsible, disorganized or not interested in the position. If you arrive on time or a few minutes early you send a positive message.

Another nonverbal form of communication at the start of a job interview is the handshake. Psychology Today claims the best way to make a good first impression is through your handshake. It should be strong and last between three and four seconds. You should make eye contact with your interviewer and shake her hand with a complete grip.


A strong command of nonverbal communication helps a relationship flourish and thrive. Nonverbal cues can help you communicate interest and trust to your long term mate or new date. When your partner talks, an effective nonverbal gesture is to lean toward him to show that you care about what he is saying.


Holding a date’s hand is a nonverbal gesture of interest and attraction. Holding his hand also shows your mate that you are together in a problem or crisis, according to Dr. Sheri Meyers Gantman, on the website Straight from the Heart. Dressing nicely is another nonverbal gesture that you want to please your partner.


You may not be aware of the messages you send to your children without even using words. Improving your nonverbal skills is an effective way of improving your parenting skills according to Positive Parenting Skills. Instead of cooking dinner while your child tells you about her day, stop for a few minutes, squat to her height, look her in the eye and listen. Multitasking while your child shares important stories and events can be translated as a lack of interest.

Many nonverbal gestures are as effective as words in communicating messages to children. Giving a crying baby a hug is one of the most effective nonverbal ways of telling her everything is going to be great. Holding her body next to yours hers is comforting and reassuring. Giving a school age child a pat on the back or a “high five” shows that you are proud. Even a handshake to a teenage son shows that you recognize his growth and maturity.



Article reviewed by SaraJ Last updated on: Jul 18, 2010


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5 Reasons You Can’t Tell When You Are Being Lied To

19 Aug

Why are people poor lie detectors?
Published on July 17, 2012 by Ronald E. Riggio, Ph.D. in Cutting-Edge Leadership 

Most people believe that they are pretty good at knowing when other people are lying. But research clearly shows that people are notoriously bad at detecting others’ lies. Even the very best lie detectors are only slightly better than chance (despite what might have been portrayed on the show Lie to Me).

Here are 5 reasons why people aren’t very good lie detectors:

1. We Rely on Stereotypes. And these stereotypes aren’t always accurate. For example, most people will use lack of eye contact as a cue of deception, but our research found that liars actually engaged in more eye contact, presumably in an effort to look more truthful. We also believe that cues of nervousness (fidgeting, wringing hands, sweating) are associated with deception, but sometimes people display these cues for reasons other than deception.

2. We Have a Trusting Bias. Research shows that we have a sort of “default” mechanism that makes us tend to believe that most people are telling the truth. Even in studies where participants are told that half of the people are lying, they judge the majority of them as honest. [This holds unless you are a police officer, customs agent, or work for the Secret Service — they tend to have a mis-trusting bias default.]

3. Some People Just Appear More Honest or Deceptive. There are individual differences in nonverbal expressive style that lead some people to look more honest and others as more dishonest. This is called the “demeanor bias.” Persons who are emotionally expressive and who move and speak more freely and fluidly are judged honest. Those who are stoic, with hesitant, staccato speech styles are seen as more dishonest.

4. We Don’t Get Much Feedback About Our Detection Accuracy. As a result, we aren’t able to hone our detection skills. We might think someone is lying, but if we don’t actually find out whether it was a lie or a truth, we aren’t able to learn to get better at detection.

5. We Simply Get Out-Foxed. Deception is a complex social interaction, much like a dance or performance. The very best liars know how to look honest (demeanor bias), they monitor their behavior, rehearse their answers, and study the detectors’ nonverbal behavior to see if they are suspicious or gullible and adjust accordingly.

So, how can you be a better deception detector?

1. Don’t Be Gullible. Recognize the trusting bias in yourself. Don’t assume that everyone is telling the truth (but don’t become overly suspicious). Don’t rely solely on simple cues (he’s avoiding eye contact; she’s stammering).

2. Analyze. Contrary to what many believe, verbal cues are often the best way to detect deception. Consider the plausibility of the story. Does it make sense and seem reasonable? Notice discrepancies in behavioral styles, from known truth-telling episodes, rather than focusing on specific cues.


Bond, C.F., & DePaulo, B. (2006).  Accuracy of deception judgments.  Personality and Social Psychology Review, 10, 214-234.

Ekman, P. (2001).  Telling lies.  New York: Norton.

DSM V: Desafío a la cordura

18 Aug


Está a punto de publicarse, en el año 2013, una nueva versión del DSM, en este caso la V versión. El DSM IV es siete veces mayor que el original. ¿Han avanzado tanto las técnicas de diagnóstico?, ¿Qué es salud mental y que no después de cincuenta años?

Por Raquel Ferrari

El DSM enumera todos los trastornos psiquiátricos, describe sus síntomas, establece parámetros para el diagnóstico y efectúa el diagnóstico diferencial. Si un conjunto de síntomas está en el DSM, quiere decir que es una “enfermedad mental”, sino no.

EL DSM es producido por la Asociación Americana de Psiquiatría y es muy influyente en todo el mundo.”Una vez que el tema ha sido incluido y descrito tiene oportunidad de ser tratado y es posible investigar” explica David Cottrell profesor de psiquiatría infantil de la Universidad de Leeds.
El kid de la cuestión en cada nueva versión del DSM es qué se agrega y qué no.
Y, desde luego, la elección no es ingenua en tanto determina las líneas de inversión en investigación psiquiátrica y da carta blanca al desarrollo de nuevos fármacos susceptibles de ser de utilidad.
Ha habido tres versiones del DSM desde su aparición en 1952 y en cada edición se amplía.

Las críticas al modelo de psiquiatrización y medicalización llueven desde todos los sectores preocupados por la desaparición de la delgada línea que separa la excentricidad de la enfermedad, la afectividad sana de la patológica.
En esta última revisión se ha armado un grupo de trabajo para decidir si la tristeza, el desorden o la timidez deben ser incluidos. Pero lo que está causando mayor polémica es la propuesta de incorporar “síndromes de riesgo” que actuarían como señales de alarma y que llevarían a prescribir fármacos “preventivos”. Asimismo se reducen los umbrales para muchos de los desordenes existente: el “síndrome de riesgo de psicosis” tiene ya un 70% de falsos positivos dispuestos a ser medicados “por las dudas”.
Y luego tenemos la medicalización del duelo normal, el aumento de los trastornos del espectro autista, el borramiento del eje multiaxial que permitía definir un escenario social o familiar.
Surgen el “trastorno mixto de ansiedad depresiva”, el “trastorno cognitivo menor” que involucra las ineficiencias normales temporarias a partir de los 50 , el “desorden explosivo intermitente” que convierte al adolescente problemático de toda la vida, el que ha elegido una identidad negativa en términos de Erikson en alguien sin control de los impulsos sin aclarar que es un síntoma de un problema mayor y no un problema en sí mismo; surge así un mercado para las terapias decididas a acabar con la “ira” ese enemigo de mil rostros (sic).
Otra característica de esta nueva clasificación es su baja sensibilidad al posible mal uso dentro del ámbito forense. Así cuestiones como las planteadas en la película “El Intercambio” estarían a la vuelta de la esquina, recordemos que se trata de un caso real: la psiquiatrización del poder que había sido controlada décadas atrás vuelve con virulencia.
Los miembros del Grupo de Trabajo no tienen previsto blindar la clasificación para impedir su uso abusivo por parte de abogados, como ya sucede con el “SAP”(Síndrome de alienación parental).
David Healy, del Dpto de psiquiatría de la Universidad de Gales, alerta sobre el riesgo de etiquetar a miles de niños y adolescentes que serán medicados sin éxito y que cargaran con el estigma de una “enfermedad mental” el resto de su vida. Healy ha alertado también sobre el ocultamiento de las evidencias de efectos secundarios de antidepresivos, antipsicóticos atípicos y ansiolíticos por parte de las compañías farmacéuticas.
Ya sabemos lo que hay, pero no se trata solo de denunciarlo.
Se trata de entender las razones que justifican este reduccionismo rabioso, se trata de contextualizar, no solo valorando las cuestiones económicas, sino también buscando entender que clase de seres humanos, familias, grupos se han gestado en los últimos 20 años de violencia simbólica, de borramiento de la subjetividad, de presunta muerte del conflicto como motor de la historia individual. Se impone el electroencefalografo plano: “sea feliz ó lo ingresamos”.
Es bueno investigar, es bueno que las neurociencias encuentren puntas de ovillo para explicar trastornos de base biológica, es bueno que la farmacología avance, lo que no es bueno es que se detecten en el Reino Unido que 1800 pacientes ancianos demenciados mueren cada año como resultado de ser recetados con fármacos antipsicóticos o que la Ritalina deje secuelas en el crecimiento y casi ninguna mejoría a los niños prematuramente diagnosticado como TDAH.
No es bueno que no haya tratamiento posible que no agreda y denigre.

¿Que podemos hacer?
Como profesionales de la salud mental, educar y difundir sobre la normalidad y la patología, incidir en la medida de lo posible para que la psicoterapia y la psicología clínica recupere su lugar y la psiquiatría vuelva al suyo. Implicar a los medios de comunicación para que hagan un uso responsable de la información de divulgación y recuperar valores que nos hagan más humanos.
Esto es un problema de todos. La buena ciencia es la única ciencia posible:

“Teoría es cuando se sabe todo y nada funciona, práctica es cuando todo funciona y nadie sabe por qué”

Más información:

Penis size: Survey of female perceptions of sexual satisfaction

17 Aug
BMC Womens Health. 2001; 1: 1.
Published online 2001 June 8. doi:  10.1186/1472-6874-1-1 

Copyright  © 2001 Eisenman; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article: verbatim copying and redistribution of this article are permitted in all media for any purpose, provided this notice is preserved along with the article’s original URL.



Does the size of the male penis, in terms of length or width, make a difference in female sexual satisfaction?


To study the effect of penis width vs. length on female sexual satisfaction, 50 sexually active female undergraduate students were asked which felt better, i. e., was penis width or length more important for their sexual satisfaction.


None reported they did not know, or that width and length were equally satisfying. A large majority, 45 of 50, reported width was more important (p < .001).


Implications are discussed, including the fact that the data seem to contradict Masters and Johnson about penis size having no physiological effect on female sexual satisfaction.


When people speak of penis size, they typically refer to length. Thus, a man with a short but wide penis would probably think of himself as having a small penis, and would be so thought of by others, too. However, width is part of size, although usually not acknowledged. Does width contribute to female sexual satisfaction? Is length more important? Or, perhaps size is unrelated to female sexual enjoyment.

The famous sex researchers Masters and Johnson [1 ,2 ] have concluded that size of the male penis can have no true physiological effect on female sexual satisfaction. They base this conclusion on their physiological studies that show that the vagina adapts to fit the size of the penis. Because of this vaginal adaptation, they refer to the vagina as a potential space rather than an actual space. Thus, despite the worries of many males about the size of their penis, Masters and Johnson concluded that any size penis will fit and provide adequate sexual stimulation to the female. The present study was conducted to see if female college students would report their sexual satisfaction related to penis length, width, or neither.



To test the notion of the possible importance of length vs. width and female sexual satisfaction, two male undergraduate college students – both popular athletes on campus – surveyed 50 female undergraduate college students, considered by the two males to be sexually active, based on the males’ prior social experience and knowledge of the females.


The female students ranged in age from 18 to 25 years old. In person or via telephone, the females were asked “In having sex, which feels better, length of penis or width of penis?” In half the cases, the word “width” was used before the word “length,” but there were no order effects. There were also no effects for telephone vs. personal interview. All female participants answered the question, perhaps because they knew the student asking the question.

Results and Discussion

Of the 50 females surveyed, 45 reported that width felt better, with only 5 reporting length felt better (chi square = 32.00, df = 1, p < .001). No females reported that they could not tell any difference. Some did report that sex in a relationship was better than sex without commitment.

Masters and Johnson [1 ,2 ] have said that penis size should have no physiological effect on female sexual enjoyment, since the vagina adapts to fit the size of the penis. The current results call this conclusion into question, and point to the importance of penis width. However, Masters and Johnson could be correct if the present subjects are only reporting their psychological preference, and not showing a true physiological preference. In other words, the present study solely assessed females’ perceived level of sexual satisfaction, which might differ from actual physiological arousal and satisfaction.

It is not obvious why a wide penis would be preferred to a long penis, but speculation would suggest the following. Penis width may be important due to a penis thick at the base providing greater clitoral stimulation as the male thrusts into the female during sexual intercourse. That is, a wide penis would seem to offer a greater degree of contact with the outer part of the vagina, including the clitoral area. If this is correct, then Masters and Johnson are wrong about penis size being unrelated, physiologically, to female sexual satisfaction. Masters, Johnson, and Kolodny [3] do not totally rule out penis size being relevant, but they suggest that it is likely of minor importance for female sexual satisfaction (see especially pages 509-510 in Masters, Johnson, and Kolodny [3]). Another possibility is that a wider penis provides the woman with a greater feeling of fullness, which is psychologically, and perhaps physiologically, satisfying.

Further research on sex is necessary to understand the various influences on sexual attitudes and behavior, including how attitudes influence behavior, if, in fact, they do [4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13]. Different samples could be studied, as well as using different methods of investigation. One might have women rank order different aspects of sexual satisfaction, including such things as physical attractiveness of the partner, romantic feelings, love, and other things, as well as penis size. This would give an understanding of where the different attributes rank in women’s stated preferences. But, width vs. length deserves study.


Women reported that penis width was more important for their sexual satisfaction than penis length. The results were statistically significant. Penis width needs to be given more consideration, and taken into account when one discusses penis size. Also, it may be that Masters and Johnson [1 ,2 ,3] were wrong about penis size having little or no physiological effect on women’s sexual satisfaction. However, the current data cannot provide a final answer, since they are based on self reports of women surveyed about penis length vs. width, and their sexual satisfaction. The results reflect either a psychological preference or a true physiological reality, but we cannot say which, with the present method that was employed.

Pre-publication history

The pre-publication history for this paper can be accessed here: 


I am grateful to the two reviewers, Charles Negy and Robert M. Gordon, for their excellent suggestions. I have incorporated all of their suggestions into my article.

Competing Interests: none declared


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The psychotic Dog men

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These men are so obsessed with their hot dog that it takes over their life and they are actually slaves to it. It can get very sad sometimes specially if they’re taught or believe that women are only there to please them and all they see is Property and not human being.   At times a psychotic Dog man’s mind will move into auto mode and they cant see feelings or emotions all they see it they’re self-gratification. They can’t or don’t want to believe that other people matter. Hopefully someone shows them that real comfort and happiness comes with sharing carefully but not foolishly.

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Question Asker


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